SQL Server Tutorial

This tutorial will show the best way to learn SQL Server and explain everything about the language. This includes an SQL tutorial for beginners on creating, altering, and deleting databases and tables. DML, DDL statements, Built-in functions etc.

SQL is to communicate or query against relational databases. According to ANSI, it is the standard language for Relational database management systems. The definition goes like this, SQL is a Structured Query Language that lets you select, access, control, and manipulate the data present in a database. Select is the most common statement that we used in queries.

Although these SQL statements are easy to read and understand, they are powerful, and this tutorial covers everything. A single SQL statement can affect or change the data forever. For example, let’s say DELETE FROM Employees will remove the whole table. So, you always have to be conscious while working with transact queries.

Best Way to Learn SQL Server tutorial Course

SQL is a Relational database, and this section explains the creation of Database objects, instances, and Tables.

Next, we cover inserting, updating, and selecting data from SQL database systems using filters, sorting, etc.

SQL Database

  1. Install Server Software
  2. Install the Adventure Works Database
  3. Data
  4. Attach Database
  5. Detach Database
  6. Restore Database
  7. Create, Rename, and Delete a Database
  8. Rename Database along with Files
  9. Get Database Names

SQL Tables

Designing tables and their structure is an essential aspect. One has to decide the tables, relationships, and data normalization. So this SQL tutorial section explains the basics, including creating tables, renaming, and altering existing Tables, columns, and temporary ones.

  1. Create Table
  2. Alter Table Add Syntax
  3. Rename Table
  4. Get Table Names
  5. Add Column
  6. Rename Column
  7. Get Column Names
  8. Local and Global Temporary
  9. Table Variable
  10. Derived Tables

Data Types

  1. Data Types
  2. DataLength

SQL Basic Commands

This SQL tutorial section provides various commands for creating a new database, table structures, Select Statements, and manipulating data to learn.

  1. DML, DDL, DCL, and TCL Commands
  2. ALIAS Column
  3. Select Distinct
  4. Select Into
  5. Insert Into Select
  6. Truncate
  7. Bulk Insert
  8. Query Builder
  9. Pivot
  10. UnPivot
  11. Merge
  12. SubQuery
  13. CASE Statement
  14. Common Table Expressions (CTE)

SQL Clauses

  1. List of Clauses with examples
  2. Group By Clause
  3. Having Clause
  4. Order By Clause
  5. Top Clause
  6. Where Clause

SQL Constraints and Indexes Example

The constraints are the rules that will apply to column data. While inserting or deleting a record in a table, queries check these constraints and reject the records that won’t meet the rules.

The unique constraints won’t allow duplicates. This SQL section covers all the Indexes, the constraints or keys syntaxes, and examples to learn and test.

  1. Primary Key
  2. Foreign Key
  3. Referential Integrity
  4. Check Constraint
  5. Default Constraint
  6. Unique Constraint
  7. Clustered Index
  8. Non-Clustered Index
  9. Filtered Index

Learn working with Nulls SQL

While working with data, Nulls are a bit problematic. Sometimes, we need to replace Nulls or skip those entries. To resolve, it has powerful functions that can work with Null values. So use this section to learn the Null functions.

  1. Coalesce
  2. IS NULL
  3. IS NOT NULL
  4. ISNULL

SQL Join Clause

Joins are a way of combining data from multiple tables. The two tables can be from the same or different databases. For joining multiple tables, there should be a common column with the same data type.

  1. Introduction to Joins
  2. Cross Join
  3. Full Join
  4. Inner Join
  5. Left Join
  6. Right Join
  7. Self Join
  8. Cross Join Vs. Inner Join
  9. List of Outer Joins

SQL Operators

The following is the list of available basic operators and statements.

  1. And & Or Operators
  2. Arithmetic Operators
  3. Between Operator
  4. Comparison Operators
  5. Exists
  6. Except
  7. Intersect
  8. In Operator
  9. Like Operator
  10. Not Exists
  11. Not In Operator
  12. Union
  13. Union All

Decision Making Statements

  1. If-Else Statement
  2. Else-If Statement
  3. While Loop
  4. Nested While Loop
  5. Break Statement
  6. Continue
  7. Goto
  8. IIF Function
  9. Choose Function

Advanced SQL tutorial Topics

The following are the advanced concepts used in software applications. Here, you learn about creating View, Stored procedures, triggers, functions, Cursors, Etc.

  1. Change Data Capture
  2. Table partition
  3. Table Partitioning using Management Studio
  4. Try Catch
  5. Views
  6. User Defined Functions
    1. Alter User Defined
  7. Stored Procedures and result set
    1. Introduction to Stored Procedures
    2. Select Statement Inside the Stored procedure Example
    3. Insert Statement Inside a Stored Procedure Example
    4. Update Statement within the Stored Procedure
    5. Input Parameters in a Stored Procedures
    6. Output Parameters in a Stored Procedure
    7. Return Values in a Stored Procedure
    8. Insert Stored Procedure output into Temporary Tbl
    9. Useful System Stored Procedures
  8. Triggers
    1. Introduction to Triggers
    2. After Insert
    3. Instead Of Insert
    4. After Update
    5. Instead Of Update
    6. After Delete
    7. Instead Of Delete
  9. Cursors
    1. Static Cursor
    2. Dynamic Cursor
    3. Forward_Only Cursor
    4. Fast_Forward Cursor
    5. Keyset
  10. Transactions
    1. Transactions
    2. Nested Transactions
    3. ACID Properties

Learn SQL SSMS

This section covers the list of operations we can do using the Management studio.

While working inside a Management Studio, you can use the context menu to get the top 1000 records, edit the column and their data, etc. You can also use the intelligence to get the recommendations or suggestions while typing on the query window.

However, knowing the syntaxes before pushing yourself on real data is always good practice. If you are trying to communicate from any other programming languages, you can use ODBC, Native connection strings, etc.

  1. Management Studio (SSMS) Introduction
  2. Install Management Studio (SSMS)
  3. Uninstall Management Studio (SSMS)
  4. Connect to Server using command prompt

SQL SSMS Tasks

  1. Create Login – Server Authentication
  2. Create a Windows Login
  3. Creating Server Roles
  4. Login Errors
  5. Back-Up Database
  6. Maintenance Plan
  7. Restore a database from the .bak file

Advanced SQL Functions tutorial

This tutorial section covers the list of available built-in SQL date, math, and string functions. Within this, we covered almost all of them with syntax and examples.

  1. Aggregate Functions – Use sum, avg, max, etc. on grouping data.
  2. Configuration Functions
  3. Mathematical functions
  4. Date methods Functions
  5. String methods
  6. System methods
  7. System Statistical

SQL Tutorial on Ranking Functions

The List of available Ranking methods and their syntax is:

  1. Introduction to Ranking
  2. Rank
  3. Dense_Rank
  4. Ntile
  5. Row_Number

Logical Example

  1. IIF
  2. Choose

SQL Analytics Tutorial

  1. Cume_Dist
  2. First_Value
  3. Last_Value
  4. Lag
  5. Lead
  6. Percentile_Cont
  7. Percentile_Disc
  8. Percent_Rank

Conversion

Use this SQL Tutorial section to learn the basics about the conversion functions.

  1. Cast
  2. Try_Cast
  3. Convert
  4. Try_Convert
  5. Parse
  6. Try_Parse

SET Permissions

  1. DateFirst
  2. DateFormat
  3. Language
  4. NoCount On
  5. RowCount

XML

  1. For XML Raw
  2. For XML Auto
  3. XML Path

Learn SQL Interview Questions

This section covers some of the faqs and advanced topics. The following is the list of frequently asked interview questions in this language.

  1. Get Column Names from Table
  2. Swap Column Values
  3. Check if a Table Exists
  4. Identity Value Jumps after restarting
  5. Find all Dependencies on Table
  6. Find all tables that Contain Specific Column Name
  7. Rename Table Name and Column Name

Basic Connections and Configurations

  1. Create ODBC Connection
  2. Create ODBC Using Native Client
  3. Connecting to R programming
  4. Configure Database Mail
  5. Create Native Client 11.0 Connection

Date and Time

  1. Format DATE
  2. Return Date Part Only from a DateTime datatype

Differences

  1. Difference between DATEPART and DATENAME
  2. Difference between UNION and UNION ALL
  3. Differentiate between CTE, Temp, Derived, Tbl Variables

SQL Groups

  1. Count Records in a Group
  2. Retrieve the Last Record in each Group
  3. Select Top N Records for each Category
  4. How to Select First Row in each group

Select, Insert, Update, and Delete

  1. Delete Duplicate Rows
  2. Insert values into the Identity Column using IDENTITY INSERT
  3. Insert Stored Procedure result into Temporary tbl
  4. How to Insert Images
  5. Select Rows with Maximum Value on a Column
  6. Select All If Parameter is Empty or NULL
  7. UPDATE Columns from SELECT

Learn tutorial about SQL Strings

  1. Concatenate Rows into String
  2. Replace String in a Column
  3. Reverse String Words
  4. Select Domain From Email

Misc queries of the SQL Server tutorial

  1. Calculating Running Total
  2. Convert Rows into Columns without applying PIVOT
  3. Convert Column Names into Rows without using UNPIVOT
  4. Export Data to CSV
  5. Nth Highest Salary
  6. Automatically Backup Database

SQL Advantages

Some of the advantages of using it but not limited are

  • Data Access: This allows the users to access data simply. For the third-party applications, use the connection strings such as OLE DB to connect with this.
  • Efficiency: Process the data very quickly. By using stored procedures, you can enhance the performance.
  • Flexibility: It is very flexible, and you can restrict the records count or any other specific needs.
  • Scalability: Databases can grow with your business needs.
  • Security: It is extremely secure and has many security features to control right from login to access data.
  • Reliability: It is very reliable and can handle a large amount of data without any issue.
  • Reporting: The famous SSRS reporting tool or report builder is used to design reports or analyze data.

FAQ’S

What is Microsoft SQL Server?

It is an RDBMS introduced by Microsoft with different versions, including Express, Standard, Enterprise, and Developer. Apart from these, it has the Reporting and Integration services to perform ETL and reporting.

The Users who want to learn can download the Developer version, which is completely free for non-commercial purposes. But, remember, it is different from MySQL.

What is RDBMS or Relational Database Management Systems?

An RDBMS is an acronym for Relational Database Management Systems that allows you to store, retrieve, and modify the data. The structured query language is the standard for creating databases, selecting records, updating, deleting, or managing.

What is Structured Query Language?

The Structured Query Language is a nonprocedural database language that helps create, access, and manipulate databases. It makes RDBMS (Relational Database Management Systems) possible.

It is the standard language used by commercial and free database products. Some products that support this language are Oracle, MySQL, Access, Sybase, PostgreSQL, IBM DB2, and so on.

What is Transact Query?

It is an extension of the standard structural language produced by Microsoft used to manage the DBs. The transact queries aimed to Insert, Update or Manipulate, and Extract data from the Relational Database Management Systems.

Is SQL a database?

It is not a database. It works against a database, including creating a database, inserting data into it, and extra, deleting, and updating the data. The important part is working with database security.

We can say queries are meant to work with databases in one line. These days, most database management systems have a better interface where we can use a few mouse clicks to get the job done. However, previously without this, you couldn’t do anything with the database.

What are the 5 basic Commands?

Create Table – To create tables.
SELECT – To query data inside a database. It selects one or more columns or all the columns.
Insert New records or rows into a table.
Update the existing data.
Delete or drop data from a table.

Who uses SQL Server?

Both developers and database administrators use it. For example, both C# and Java developers create an application that inserts data into database tables, retrieves it to show on a web or windows, and modifies it.

The database administrator controls how data has to store, who can access it, the type of data it accepts, security, maintenance, backups, etc.

What is the difference between SQL and a Database?

Database: It allows you to organize a large amount of data into logical groups and uses tables to store data. A single table can have multiple columns, and each may hold a different data type.
The language queries data present in the database or entered records.

What are the two basic components of a SQL Statement?

The two main components are the SELECT and FROM clauses. The Select is used to retrieve data from one or more tables. The FROM clause is to specify from where to retrieve the data (table(s), view, and stored procedures).

What are the Common Statements?

SELECT – To select or get data from tables.
CREATE – To create a database, tables, etc.
WHERE – Filter the data using conditions.
ORDER BY – Sort the record set.
INSERT – Add record(s) to a table.
UPDATE – Modify the existing records.
DELETE – Delete record(s) from a table.
Apart from the above, it has many pre-built functions that you can use on the tables to perform all the operations.

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