SQL Server Tutorial

This tutorial will show the best way to learn SQL Server and explain everything about the language. This includes an SQL tutorial for beginners on creating, altering, and deleting databases and tables. DML, DDL statements, Built-in functions, etc.

SQL is to communicate or query against relational databases. According to ANSI, it is the standard language for Relational database management systems. The definition goes like this: SQL is a Structured Query Language that lets you select, access, control, and manipulate the data in a database. Select is the most common statement that we use in queries.

Although these SQL statements are easy to read and understand, they are powerful, and this tutorial covers everything. A single SQL statement can affect or change the data forever. For example, let’s say DELETE FROM Employees will remove the whole table. So, you always have to be conscious while working with transact queries.

Best Way to Learn SQL Server tutorial Course

SQL is a Relational database, and this section explains the creation of Database objects, instances, and Tables.

Next, we cover inserting, updating, and selecting data from SQL database systems using filters, sorting, etc.

SQL Database

  1. Install Server Software
  2. Install the Adventure Works Database
  3. Restore Database from bak file
  4. Create, Rename, and Delete a Database

SQL Tables

Designing tables and their structure is an essential aspect. One has to decide the tables, relationships, and data normalization. So this SQL tutorial section explains the basics, including creating tables, renaming, and altering existing Tables, columns, and temporary ones.

  1. Create Table
  2. Alter Table Add Syntax
  3. Rename Table
  4. Add Column
  5. Rename Column
  6. Local and Global Temporary
  7. Table Variable
  8. Derived Tables

Data Types

  1. Data Types
  2. DataLength

What are the Common Statements?

  1. SELECT – To select or get data from tables.
  2. CREATE – To create a database, tables, etc.
  3. WHERE – Filter the data using conditions.
  4. ORDER BY – Sort the record set.
  5. INSERT – Add record(s) to a table.
  6. UPDATE – Modify the existing records.
  7. DELETE – Delete record(s) from a table.

Apart from the above, it has many pre-built functions that you can use on the tables to perform all the operations.

SQL Basic Commands

This SQL tutorial section provides various commands for creating a new database, table structures, Select Statements, and manipulating data to learn.

  1. DML, DDL, DCL, and TCL Commands
  2. ALIAS Column
  3. Select Distinct Columns
  4. Select Into
  5. Insert Into Select
  6. Truncate
  7. Bulk Insert
  8. Query Builder
  9. Pivot
  10. UnPivot
  11. Merge
  12. SubQuery
  13. CASE Statement
  14. Common Table Expressions (CTE)

SQL Clauses

  1. List of Clauses with examples
  2. Group By Clause
  3. Having Clause
  4. Order By Clause
  5. Top Clause
  6. Where Clause

SQL Constraints and Indexes Example

The constraints are the rules that will apply to column data. While inserting or deleting a record in a table, queries check these constraints and reject the records that won’t meet the rules.

The unique constraints won’t allow duplicates. This SQL section covers all the Indexes, the constraints or keys syntaxes, and examples to learn and test. So, please refer to the Introduction to Constraints and Indexes article.

Learn work with Nulls SQL

While working with data, Nulls are a bit problematic. Sometimes, we need to replace Nulls or skip those entries. It has powerful functions that can work with Null values to resolve this. So use this section to learn the Null functions.

  1. Coalesce
  2. IS NULL

SQL Join Clause

Joins are a way of combining data from multiple tables. The two tables can be from the same or different databases. There should be a common column with the same data type for joining multiple tables. In the Introduction to Joins article, we have explained everything in detail.

SQL Operators

The following is the list of available basic operators and statements.

  1. And & Or Operators
  2. Arithmetic Operators
  3. Between Operator
  4. Comparison Operators
  5. Exists
  6. Except
  7. Intersect
  8. In Operator
  9. Like Operator
  10. Not Exists
  11. Not In Operator
  12. Union
  13. Union All

Decision Making Statements

  1. If-Else Statement
  2. Else-If Statement
  3. While Loop
  4. Break Statement
  5. Continue
  6. Goto
  7. IIF Function
  8. Choose Function

Advanced SQL tutorial Topics

The following are the advanced concepts used in software applications. Here, you learn about creating View, Stored procedures, triggers, functions, Cursors, Etc.

  1. ACID Properties
  2. Change Data Capture
  3. Table partition using Query and Management Studio.
  4. Try Catch
  6. User Defined Functions
  7. Stored Procedures
  8. Triggers
  9. Cursors
  10. Transactions


This section covers the list of operations we can do using the Management studio.

While working inside a Management Studio, you can use the context menu to get the top 1000 records, edit the column and their data, etc. You can also use intelligence to get recommendations or suggestions while typing in the query window.

However, knowing the syntaxes before pushing yourself on real data is always good practice. If you are trying to communicate from other programming languages, you can use ODBC, Native connection strings, etc.

  1. Management Studio (SSMS) Introduction
  2. Install Management Studio (SSMS)


  1. Create Login – Server Authentication
  2. Back-Up Database

Advanced SQL Functions tutorial

This tutorial section covers the available built-in SQL date, math, and string functions. Within this, we covered almost all of them with syntax and examples.

  1. Aggregate Functions – Use sum, avg, max, etc., on grouping data.
  2. Analytic Functions – Cume_Dist, First_Value, Last_Value, Lag, Lead, Percentile_Cont, Percentile_Disc, and Percent_Rank
  3. Configuration Functions
  4. Mathematical functions
  5. Date methods Functions
  6. String methods
  7. System methods
  8. System Statistical
  9. Set Permissions
  10. The Introduction to Ranking article explains the list of available Ranking functions and their syntax.

Use this SQL Tutorial section to learn the basics of conversion functions.


  1. For XML Raw
  2. For XML Auto
  3. XML Path

Learn SQL Interview Questions

This section covers some of the faqs and advanced topics. To view all of them, please refer to the Interview Questions article.

SQL Advantages

Some of the advantages of using it but not limited are

  • Data Access: This allows the users to access data simply. For the third-party applications, use the connection strings such as OLE DB to connect with this.
  • Efficiency: Process the data very quickly. By using stored procedures, you can enhance performance.
  • Flexibility: It is very flexible, and you can restrict the records count or any other specific needs.
  • Scalability: Databases can grow with your business needs.
  • Security: It is extremely secure and has many security features to control, from login to access data.
  • Reliability: It is very reliable and can handle a large amount of data without any issues.
  • Reporting: The famous SSRS reporting tool or report builder designs reports or analyzes data.


What is Microsoft SQL Server?

It is an RDBMS introduced by Microsoft with different versions, including Express, Standard, Enterprise, and Developer. Apart from these, it has the Reporting and Integration services to perform ETL and reporting.

Users who want to learn can download the Developer version, which is completely free for non-commercial purposes. But remember, it is different from MySQL.

What is RDBMS or Relational Database Management Systems?

An RDBMS is an acronym for Relational Database Management System that allows you to store, retrieve, and modify data. The structured query language is the standard for creating databases, selecting records, updating, deleting, or managing.

What is Structured Query Language?

The Structured Query Language is a nonprocedural database language that helps create, access, and manipulate databases. It makes RDBMS (Relational Database Management Systems) possible.

It is the standard language used by commercial and free database products. Some products that support this language are Oracle, MySQL, Access, Sybase, PostgreSQL, IBM DB2, and so on.

What is Transact Query?

It is an extension of the standard structural language produced by Microsoft used to manage the DBs. The transact queries aimed to Insert, Update, Manipulate, and Extract data from the Relational Database Management Systems.

Is SQL a database?

It is not a database. It works against a database, including creating a database, inserting data into it, and extra, deleting, and updating the data. The important part is working with database security.

We can say queries are meant to work with databases in one line. These days, most database management systems have a better interface where we can use a few mouse clicks to get the job done. However, previously without this, you couldn’t do anything with the database.

What are the 5 basic Commands?

  1. Create Table – To create tables.
  2. SELECT – To query data inside a database. It selects one or more columns or all the columns.
  3. Insert New records or rows into a table.
  4. Update the existing data.
  5. Delete or drop data from a table.

Who uses SQL Server?

Both developers and database administrators use it. For example, both C# and Java developers create an application that inserts data into database tables, retrieves it to show on the web or windows, and modifies it.

The database administrator controls how data has to store, who can access it, the type of data it accepts, security, maintenance, backups, etc.

What is the difference between SQL and a Database?

Database: It allows you to organize a large amount of data into logical groups and uses tables to store data. A single table can have multiple columns, and each may hold a different data type.

The language queries data present in the database or entered records.

What are the two basic components of a SQL Statement?

The two main components are the SELECT and FROM clauses. The Select is used to retrieve data from one or more tables. The FROM clause is to specify from where to retrieve the data (table(s), view, and stored procedures).

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