The SQL Server provides various SQL Mathematical Functions, which allows us to perform basic math functionality.

For instance, you can use SQL Mathematical functions to find the elementary exponential value, square root, floor, round, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions.

## SQL Mathematical Functions

The following table will show you the list of Mathematical Functions in SQL Server

SQL Mathematical Functions | Description |
---|---|

ABS | It returns the Absolute value or absolute positive value. |

ACOS | It will return the trigonometric Arc Cosine value of a Given value |

ASIN | This Mathematical function returns the trigonometric Arc Sine value of a Given value |

ATAN | It will return the trigonometric Arc Tangent value of a Given value |

ATN2 | It is used to return the angle (in radius) from the X-Axis to the specified point (y, x) |

CEILING | This SQL Mathematical function returns the smallest value, which is greater than or equal to the specified expression or given value. |

COS | It is used to return the trigonometric Cosine value of a Given value |

COT | It is used to return the trigonometric Cotangent value of a Given value |

DEGREES | It is used to convert the specified radiant angle to equivalent angle measured in Degrees |

EXP | It returns E raised to the power of given value, Where E is Euler’s number, and it is approximately equal to 2.71828. |

FLOOR | This SQL Mathematical function returns the largest integer value, which is less than or equal to the specified expression or given value. |

LOG | It will calculate the natural logarithmic value of a given number with base E, where E is Euler’s number, which is equal to 2.71828. |

LOG10 | It is used to calculate the base 10 logarithmic value of the given number. |

PI | This SQL Mathematical function returns the Pie Value, which is approximately equal to 3.14 |

POWER | It is used to return the power of user-specified expression or value. |

RADIANS | It is used to convert the specified Degrees angle to equivalent angle measured in Radians |

RAND | This Mathematical function returns the positive and the value will be greater than or equal to 0.0 and less than 1.0 |

ROUND | It is used to round the specified expression or an individual number to a nearest numeric value. |

SIGN | Returns the Sign of the given argument, and the result may be Positive (+), Negative (-), or Zero (0). |

SIN | It is used to return the trigonometric Sine value of a Given value |

SQRT | This SQL Mathematical function finds the square root of a specified expression or an individual number |

SQUARE | It is used to return the square of the specified expression or an individual number |

TAN | It returns the trigonometric Tangent value of a Given value |

From the above specified SQL Mathematical functions, all the Arithmetic functions such as ABS, DEGREES, CEILING, FLOOR, POWER, SIGN, AND RADIANS return the result as same data type as the input value.

Trigonometric and other functions, including EXP, SQUARE, SQRT, LOG10, and LOG will CAST their input values to FLOAT data type and return the result as FLOAT value.

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