The SQL Server provides various SQL Mathematical Functions, which allows us to perform basic math functionality such as the elementary exponential, square root, floor, round, logarithmic and trigonometric functions.

## SQL Mathematical Functions

The following table will show you the list of SQL Mathematical Functions in SQL Server

SQL Mathematical Functions | Description |
---|---|

ABS | It will return the Absolute value |

ACOS | It will return the trigonometric Arc Cosine value of a Given value |

ASIN | It will return the trigonometric Arc Sine value of a Given value |

ATAN | It will return the trigonometric Arc Tangent value of a Given value |

ATN2 | It is used to return the angle (in radius) from the X-Axis to the specified point (y, x) |

CEILING | It is used to return the smallest value which is greater than or equal to the specified expression or given value. |

COS | It is used to return the trigonometric Cosine value of a Given value |

COT | It is used to return the trigonometric Cotangent value of a Given value |

DEGREES | It is used to convert the specified radiant angle to equivalent angle measured in Degrees |

EXP | It is used to return E raised to the power of given value, Where E is Euler’s number and it is approximately equal to 2.71828. |

FLOOR | It is used to return the largest integer value which is less than or equal to the specified expression or a given value. |

LOG | It will calculate the natural logarithmic value of given number with base E, where E is Euler’s number, which is equal to 2.71828. |

LOG10 | It is used to calculate the base 10 logarithmic value of given number. |

PI | It will return the Pie Value, which is approximately equal to 3.14 |

POWER | It is used to return the power of user specified expression or value. |

RADIANS | It is used to convert the specified Degrees angle to equivalent angle measured in Radians |

RAND | It is used to return positive and the value will be greater than or equal to 0.0 and less than 1.0 |

ROUND | It is used to round the specified expression or an individual number to nearest numeric value. |

SIGN | It is used to return the Sign of the given argument, and the result may be Positive (+), Negative (-), or Zero (0). |

SIN | It is used to return the trigonometric Sine value of a Given value |

SQRT | It is used to find the square root of a specified expression or an individual number |

SQUARE | It is used to return the square of the specified expression or an individual number |

TAN | It is used to return the trigonometric Tangent value of a Given value |

From the above specified functions, all the Arithmetic functions such as: ABS, DEGREES, CEILING, FLOOR, POWER, SIGN, AND RADIANS return the result as same data type as the input value.

Trigonometric and other functions including: EXP, SQUARE, SQRT, LOG10, and LOG will CAST their input values to FLOAT data type, and return the result as FLOAT value.

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