SQL Mathematical Functions

The SQL Server provides various SQL Mathematical Functions, which allows us to perform basic math functionality. For instance, you can use SQL Mathematical functions to find the elementary exponential value, square root, floor, round, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions.

SQL Mathematical Functions

Apart from basic math operators, which we discussed in the SQL Server Arithmetic Operators tutorial, there are standard and common Math functions. These SQL Mathematical functions allow you to manipulate the numerical data, which is crucial in data processing.

The following table will show you the list of Mathematical Functions in SQL Server. So, please follow the links to view the tutorial on SQL Server Math functions.

SQL Mathematical FunctionsDescription
ABSIt returns the Absolute value or absolute positive value.
ACOSIt will return the trigonometric Arc Cosine value of a Given value
ASINThis Mathematical function returns the trigonometric Arc Sine value of a Given value
ATANIt will return the trigonometric Arc Tangent value of a Given value
ATN2It is used to return the angle (in radius) from the X-Axis to the specified point (y, x)
CEILINGThis SQL Mathematical function returns the smallest value, which is greater than or equal to the specified expression or given value.
COSIt is used to return the trigonometric Cosine value of a Given value
COTIt is used to return the trigonometric Cotangent value of a Given value
DEGREESIt is used to convert the specified radiant angle to equivalent angle measured in Degrees
EXPIt returns E raised to the power of given value, Where E is Euler’s number, and it is approximately equal to 2.71828.
FLOORThis SQL Mathematical function returns the largest integer value, which is less than or equal to the specified expression or given value.
LOGIt will calculate the natural logarithmic value of a given number with base E, where E is Euler’s number, which is equal to 2.71828.
LOG10It is used to calculate the base 10 logarithmic value of the given number.
PIThis SQL Mathematical function returns the Pie Value, which is approximately equal to 3.14
POWERIt is used to return the power of user-specified expression or value.
RADIANSIt is used to convert the specified Degrees angle to equivalent angle measured in Radians
RANDThis Mathematical function returns the positive and the value will be greater than or equal to 0.0 and less than 1.0
ROUNDIt is used to round the specified expression or an individual number to a nearest numeric value.
SIGNReturns the Sign of the given argument, and the result may be Positive (+), Negative (-), or Zero (0).
SINIt is used to return the trigonometric Sine value of a Given value
SQRTThis SQL Mathematical function finds the square root of a specified expression or an individual number
SQUAREIt is used to return the square of the specified expression or an individual number
TANIt returns the trigonometric Tangent value of a Given value

From the above specified SQL Mathematical functions, all the Arithmetic functions such as ABS, DEGREES, CEILING, FLOOR, POWER, SIGN, AND RADIANS return the result as same data type as the input value.

Trigonometric and other functions, including SQL Server EXP, SQUARE, SQRT, LOG10, and LOG will CAST their input values to FLOAT data type and return the result as FLOAT value.