SQL Date Functions

The SQL Server provides several SQL Date Functions, which helps us to work with date and time value. For example, to get the Current date or extracting year or month from the date column, etc., you need these SQL server date functions. In this article, we will show you the available list of Date functions in SQL Server along with its description.

SQL Date Functions

In general, the SQL Date will store in dd-mm-yyyy hh:mm:ss format or any other system-specific format. There are some cases where we have to extract individual parts such as Month, Month Name, Year, Day, etc. In other times, we may have to format the SQL Date, add or subtract a few days from the original date. In all these scenarios, we can use the built-in standard SQL Server date functions to manipulate the Date.

The following list of tables will show you the available list of SQL Date and Time Functions Use these links to learn Sql Server data functions, which includes getting data, formatting date and time etc.

Higher-Precision SQL Date and Time Functions

The following are the high precision data and time functions in SQL Server.

Function NameSyntaxReturn Data TypeDescription
SysDateTimeSYSDATETIME()datetime2(7)It returns the date and time of the system on which the current Server instance is running.
SysDateTimeOffsetSYSDATETIMEOFFSET()datetimeoffset(7)This SQL Date and time function returns the date and time along with the time zone offset of the system on which the current SQL Server instance is running.
SysUTCDateTimeSYSUTCDATETIME()datetime2(7)This will return the date and time of the computer on which the Server instance is running. Here, the date and time returns as Coordinated Universal Time or UTC Time

Lower-Precision SQL Date and Time Functions

The list of low precision Sql Server data and time functions.

Function NameSyntaxReturn Data TypeDescription
Current_TimeStampCURRENT_TIMESTAMPdatetimeIt returns the date and time of the system on which the current Server instance is running.
GetDateGETDATE()datetimeReturns the date and time of the computer on which the Server instance is running.
GetUTCDateGETUTCDATE ()datetimeThis Date function return date and time of the system on which Server instance is running. Here, date and time returned as Coordinated Universal Time or UTC Time

SQL Date Functions to gets date and Time Parts

The following SQL Date functions help you to extract the date Parts and Time Parts from the user-specified dates.

Function NameSyntaxReturn Data TypeDescription
DateNameDATENAME (datepart, date)NVARCHARThis SQL Date function returns the specified date part from user specified date.
DatePartDATEPART (datepart, date)intReturns the specified date part from the user given date.
DAYDAY(date)intReturns the Day part of the specified date.
MonthMONTH(date)intThis Date function returns the Month part of the user specified date.
YEARYEAR(date)intIt returns the year part of the user-specified date.

SQL Date Functions to gets date and Time Values from their Parts

The below functions will return date and Time from the user-specified parts, Or you can say, constructing date and time.

Function NameSyntaxReturn DatatypeDescription
DateFromPartsDATEFROMPARTS (year, month, day)dateIt returns Date value from given parts.
DateTime2FromPartsdatetime2fromparts (year, month, day, hours, minute, seconds, fractions, precision)datetime2 (precision)Returns datetime2 value with specified precision from given parts.
DateTimeFromPartsdatetimefromparts (year, month, day, hour, minute, seconds, milliseconds)datetimereturns datetime value from given parts.
DateTimeOffsetFromPartsdatetimeoffsetfroomparts (year, month, day, hour, minute, seconds, fractions, hour_offset, minute_offset, precision)datetime (precision)Returns datetimeoffset value with specified offsets and precision from given parts.
SmallDateTimeFromPartssmalldatetimefromparts (year, month, day, hours, minute)smalldatetimeIt returns smalldatetime value from the given parts.
TimeFromPartsTIMEFROMPARTS (hours, minute, seconds, fractions, precision)time (precision)It returns Time value with specified precision.

SQL Date Functions to get Date and Time Difference

The Following SQL date functions will help you to find the differences between two dates.

Function NameSyntaxReturn Data TypeDescription
DateDiffDATEDIFF (datepart, start_date, end_date)intThis Date and time function calculate the difference between start date and end date.
DateDiff_BigDATEDIFF_BIG (datepart, start_date, end_date)bigintSame as DATEDIFF but it return bigint data type.

SQL Date and Time Functions to modify date and Time Values

The below functions help you to alter or Modify the user-specified date.

Function NameSyntaxReturn Data TypeDescription
DateAddDATEADD(datepart, number, date)Data type of date argumentThis date function returns a new datetime value by adding user specified number.
EoMonthEOMONTH(start_date, Months_to_add)Date, or return type of the first argument.Returns the last day of the month with an optional offset.
SwitchOffsetSWITCHOFFSET (DATETIMEOFFSET, Time_Zone)datetimeoffset with a fractional precision of the first argument.It changes the time zone offset of a DATETIMEOFFSET value. Remember, it preserves the UTC value
ToDateTimeOffsetTODATETIMEOFFSET (Expression, Time_Zone)datetimeoffset with fractional precision of the first argument.This Date and time function transforms the datetime2 value into datetimeofset value.

SQL Date Functions that get or set session format

The following shown SQL Server date and time functions will change the default formats. By this, you can change the default return format of a date and time.

Function NameSyntaxReturn Data TypeDescription
@@DateFirst@@DATEFIRSTtinyintThis Date function returns the current value of the session.
Set DateFirstSET DATEFIRST specific_numberNot ApplicableYou can set the first day of a week from number 1 to 7
Set DateFormatSET DATEFORMAT specific_formatNot ApplicableYou can set the format of a date.
@@Language@@LANGUAGENot ApplicableThis Sql Date function returns the Language that currently in use.
Set LanguageSET LANGUAGE language_NameNot ApplicableYou can Set or change the default language as per your requirement.
sp_helplanguagesp_helplanguage language_NameNot ApplicableIt returns all the information about the given language, and its date formats.

Date Functions to validate date and Time Values

We can use the below-shown Date and time function to validate the given value.

Function NameSyntaxReturn Data TypeDescription
ISDATEISDATE(Expression)intIt determines whether the input expression is a valid date or time value.