The SQL Server provides various SQL Mathematical Functions, which allows us to perform basic math functionality such as the elementary exponential, square root, floor, round, logarithmic and trigonometric functions.

## SQL Mathematical Functions

The following table will show you the list of SQL Mathematical Functions in SQL Server

SQL Mathematical Functions | Description |
---|---|

ABS | It will return the Absolute value |

ACOS | It will return the trigonometric Arc Cosine value of a Given value |

ASIN | It will return the trigonometric Arc Sine value of a Given value |

ATAN | It will return the trigonometric Arc Tangent value of a Given value |

ATN2 | It is used to return the angle (in radius) from the X-Axis to the specified point (y, x) |

CEILING | It is used to return the smallest value which is greater than or equal to the specified expression or given value. |

COS | It is used to return the trigonometric Cosine value of a Given value |

COT | It is used to return the trigonometric Cotangent value of a Given value |

DEGREES | It is used to convert the specified radiant angle to equivalent angle measured in Degrees |

EXP | It is used to return E raised to the power of given value, Where E is Euler’s number and it is approximately equal to 2.71828. |

FLOOR | It is used to return the largest integer value which is less than or equal to the specified expression or a given value. |

LOG | It will calculate the natural logarithmic value of given number with base E, where E is Euler’s number, which is equal to 2.71828. |

LOG10 | It is used to calculate the base 10 logarithmic value of given number. |

PI | It will return the Pie Value, which is approximately equal to 3.14 |

POWER | It is used to return the power of user specified expression or value. |

RADIANS | It is used to convert the specified Degrees angle to equivalent angle measured in Radians |

RAND | It is used to return positive and the value will be greater than or equal to 0.0 and less than 1.0 |

ROUND | It is used to round the specified expression or an individual number to nearest numeric value. |

SIGN | It is used to return the Sign of the given argument, and the result may be Positive (+), Negative (-), or Zero (0). |

SIN | It is used to return the trigonometric Sine value of a Given value |

SQRT | It is used to find the square root of a specified expression or an individual number |

SQUARE | It is used to return the square of the specified expression or an individual number |

TAN | It is used to return the trigonometric Tangent value of a Given value |

From the above specified functions, all the Arithmetic functions such as ABS, DEGREES, CEILING, FLOOR, POWER, SIGN, AND RADIANS return the result as same data type as the input value. Trigonometric and other functions including EXP, SQUARE, SQRT, LOG10, and LOG will CAST their input values to FLOAT data type and return the result as FLOAT value.

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