The Comparison Operators in R are used to compare two variables, and what if we want to compare more than one condition? Very simple, R logical operators will do the trick for you.

The Logical operators in R programming are used to combine two or more conditions, and perform the logical operations using & (Logical AND), | (Logical OR) and ! (Logical NOT). Below table describes them

OPERATORS |
NAME |
DESCRIPTION |
EXAMPLE |
---|---|---|---|

& | logical AND | It will return true when both conditions are true | c(20, 30) & c(30, 10) |

&& | logical AND | Same as above but, It will work on single element | If (age > 18 && age <= 25) |

| | logical OR | It will returns true when at-least one of the condition is true | c(20, 30) | c(30, 10) |

|| | logical OR | Same as above but, It will work on single element | If (age == 35 || age < 60) |

! | logical NOT | If the condition is true, logical NOT operator returns as false | If age = 18 then !( age = 18) returns false. |

Let us see the truth tables behind the logical operators in R programming for better understanding

**LOGICAL AND Truth table**

Truth table behind the logical AND operator is as shown below:

Condition 1 |
Condition 2 |
Condition 1 && Condition 2 |
---|---|---|

True | True | True |

True | False | False |

False | True | False |

False | False | False |

**LOGICAL OR Truth table**

The Truth table behind the logical OR operator is as shown below:

Condition 1 |
Condition 2 |
Condition 1 || Condition 2 |
---|---|---|

True | True | True |

True | False | True |

False | True | True |

False | False | False |

## Basic Logical Operators in R example

This example will help you understand, how the logical operators in R Programming are used in If statements. For this example, We are assigned one integer variables and then, inside the If Statement we are using basic logical operators such as : &&, ||, and !.

**R CODE**

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# Logical Operators in R example age <- 16 if (!(age > 18)) { print("You are Too Young") } else if(age > 18 && age <= 35) { print("Young Guy") } else if(age == 36 || age <= 60) { print("You are Middle Age Person") } else { print("You are too Old") } |

**OUTPUT**

## R Logical Operators example

This example will help you understand, how each and every R logical operator will work. Remember, any positive integer value greater than zero is considered as Boolean TRUE, and 0 is considered as Boolean False.

**R CODE**

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# Logical Operators in R example num1 <- c(TRUE, FALSE, 0, 23) num2 <- c(FALSE, FALSE, TRUE, TRUE) # Performs logical AND operation on each and every element in both num1, num2 num1 & num2 # Performs logical AND operation on first element in both num1, num2 num1 && num2 # Performs logical OR operation on each and every element in both num1, num2 num1 | num2 # Performs logical OR operation on first element in both num1, num2 num1 || num2 This will convert all the num1 TRUE values to FALSE, and FALSE values to TRUE !num1 # From num2 Vector - This will convert all the TRUE values to FALSE, and FALSE to TRUE !num2 |

**OUTPUT**

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num1 <- c(TRUE, FALSE, 0, 23) num2 <- c(FALSE, FALSE, TRUE, TRUE) |

Below statement will compare each and every vector element, and find the logical relation.

1 |
num1 & num2 |

Following statement will compare the first element of num1 vector and the first element of num2 vector. It means, TRUE && FALSE = FALSE.

1 |
num1 && num2 |

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